Use Ctrl/Cmd-Shift-O shortcut and supply a URL to quickly open the file and review the code within Brackets. \left and \right can dynamically adjust the size, as shown by the next example:. It is open source project supported by active developers like you. Why use Brackets? before downloading, installing and starting with any text editor its must to know about that editor. I would appreciate if you could direct me to where I could learn about regex (regular expressions) in Brackets. Other editors support nearly all of the major languages, which can be handy if you decide to start. 3 CodeMirror is a code-editor component that can be embedded in Web pages. Sublime Text has shown us how incredible a simple text editor can be with wide open customization options and a rich plugin architecture. Brackets is a top-notch Text editor for mac. This obviously caught my attention since they labeled it as a text editor that "understands web design" and so I began taking it for a spin. 5 is the latest version that has a NT directory. In first paragraph on first page, Format > Paragraph > Text Flow > Breaks, select Enable and With Page Style, choose the page style, specify the page number. This amazing code editor comes with so many amazing features packed into one app and, best of all, you can even supercharge it with extensions to add more great functions. It's an Adobe tool, so it looks great and integrated perfectly with other Adobe products. We blend visual tools into the editor so you get the right amount of help when you want it without getting in the way of your creative process. It allows inserting the BBCode on selected text in textarea. Using a text editor such as TeachText or SimpleText, open the Equation Editor Preference file, which is located in the Preferences folder. But it also means it's relatively easy to customise, and there are already a host of add-ons to extend Brackets even further. If you wish to be an all-encompassing editor or proofreader, ready for any situation, you should know these proofreaders' marks and be able to use them with ease. Jan 03, 2019 · A code editor is a place where a programmer spends most of his time and it is an essential part of every software developing. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. Brackets is a user-friendly modern text editor that comes with dedicated visual tools and preprocessor. Bracketsは、Adobe Systemsが開発するオープンソースのソースコードエディタ である。 リリースサイクルは、4か月ごとの定期リリースとなっている。 Adobe Dreamweaver CC 2017以降ではコードエディター部分に、Bracketsをベースにしたものを採用している。. I suppose that diffing implemented in brackets will also give a better experience than diffing in other tools because the diff would be syntax aware, thus able to ignore potentially meaningless differences (not so much a thing in JavaScript, but in CSS and HTML is a possible gain). The guide provides JEL Code application guidelines, keywords, and examples of items within each classification. Enter the following text between the brackets. Bracket matching. It is specialized for editing code, and comes with a number of language modes and addons that implement more advanced editing functionality. 5 (Text Editor) on Linux on RHEL, CentOS, Ubuntu, Mint, Debian, Fedora & openSUSE Systems. You can resize, rotate or move text. I would appreciate if you could direct me to where I could learn about regex (regular expressions) in Brackets. Brackets is the best and the most versatile code editor you can find for front-end design coding. The project was created and is maintained by Adobe, and is released under an MIT License. The brand new Aurora HDR 2019 is now available for pre-order. Open source and free to download text editor. I'm new to Ubuntu and I have this problem when I start an HTML file and then want to add a JavaScript script to it, Brackets shows errors even when everything is correct. What's really surprising, though, is that Brackets is itself largely written in JavaScript, CSS and HTML. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern javascript editor. If you need assistance code syntax and code options, then the Quick Edit option provides help along the way. In the question“What are the best programming text editors?” Brackets is ranked 12th while Notepad++ is ranked 14th. The NetBeans IDE's Java Editor helps you quickly complete and generate code through the "smart" code completion feature. – RPiAwesomeness Jun 5 '15 at 1:10. I have recently undertaken a project for programming practice based on a simple text editor. It is probably the most useful of Linux applications, in that you can quickly view and edit the text files right at the command shell. Atom is a relative newcomer to the world of text editors but it's gained huge momentum since it was first released in 2014. I found myself using Sublime Text a few months ago and noticed that something wasn't working right. With centered visual tools and preprocessor bolster, Brackets is a cutting edge content tool that makes it simple to outline in the program. On the left is the bookmarks. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. Your primary editor is a very personal decision for a developer. Brackets is an open-source editor for web design and development built on top of web technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Visual Studio Code. Brackets is a text editor that can be used for web. This utility allows you to visually check that your code's braces (a. Features Brackets's features include: Why Use Brackets? Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. The Brackets editor has everything you need for. With centered visual tools and preprocessor bolster, Brackets is a cutting edge content tool that makes it simple to outline in the program. Enter a sentence in the labeled bracket notation into Editor area above and click Draw PNG button. com will still see advertisements. The guide provides JEL Code application guidelines, keywords, and examples of items within each classification. We will go from A to Z with Brackets in this tutorial series, first learning some of the back story behind it, then installing it, and finally becoming acquainted with its many features. It blends visual tools into the editor so you get the right amount of help when you want it without getting in the way of your creative process. Sublime Text Editor. I'm looking for a simple, free, lightweight, dark theme supported text editor for HTML. Oct 31, 2019 · Coda 2. Rebuilt from the ground-up. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. PowerShell debugger and script packager. app, Ulysses, Vim, Visual. It fills the gaping void between basic text applications (Notepad, TextEdit, gedit, etc. Compare Brackets VS jEdit and see what are their differences A modern, open source text editor that understands web design jEdit is a mature programmer's text editor with a large collection of plugins. A community guided open source web editor from Adobe, with focused visual tools and preprocessor support, Brackets is a modern text editor that makes it easy to design in the browser, crafted from the ground up for web designers and front-end developers. The formatting rules are not configurable but are already optimized for the best possible output. 14, the latest release of Brackets Text Editor for Linux Ubuntu, brings PHP Tooling, LSP Support and many more improvements and fixes. Install Brackets Text Editor on Ubuntu 18. Brackets Themes: A collection of Brackets editor themes. With new features and extensions released every 3-4 weeks, it's like getting presents all year long. Use brackets [ [ ]] in the following situations:. It's open source for personal and business use. Apr 04, 2019 · Brackets is a popular text editor that was launched by Adobe back in 2014. Unlike Microsoft’s built-in text editor (Notepad), gedit is a more feature-packed text editor geared towards usage for programming and mark-up. Bootstrap 4 Complete Multi Page Website Build. I found myself using Sublime Text a few months ago and noticed that something wasn't working right. Brackets is not a universal text editor, but a text editor that focuses on front-end development, i. It's worth pointing out that Brackets is primarily aimed at front end developers and web designers. It fills the gaping void between basic text applications (Notepad, TextEdit, gedit, etc. PSPad is a freeware programmer's editor for Microsoft Windows operating systems, useful for people who: work with various programming environments; like highlighted syntax in their source code; need a small tool with simple controls and the capabilities of a mighty code editor; are looking for a tool that handles plain text. Given strings of brackets, determine whether each sequence of brackets is balanced. Here you will find everything you need to know about BibTeX. Text editors are also useful for removing formatting, font styles and hyperlinks from text. You can resize, rotate or move text. Function Description. This software category is in need of an editor. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. Brackets is an open source code editor originally developed by Adobe. 14, the latest release of Brackets Text Editor for Linux Ubuntu, brings PHP Tooling, LSP Support and many more improvements and fixes. At the time of this writing v2. You can edit this file to modify the value of an existing property or add a new preference for a property. I don't often print, I'll admit. this [passage link], and this [other passage link. More than 3429 downloads this month. EQ \x \to(). Interested in our Free HTML Editor? Since 1996, our tools have helped thousands flourish on the web. Brackets is a free and open source text editor whose primary focus in on Web Development and is written in HTML, CSS and JavaScript using CodeMirror in a Node. Written in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript with focused visual tools and preprocessor support, Brackets makes it easy for web designers and front-end developers to design in the browser. A hackable text editor for the 21st Century. Features Brackets's features include: Why Use Brackets? Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. As most of you alreay know, this blog is powered by Jekyll, and therefore it is a bunch of plain text files, with Markdown syntax. We blend visual tools into the editor so you get the right amount of help when you want. After the paste nothing actually appears and the editor is 'frozen' I cannot move cursor, type or click anywhere inside editor. It is a good idea to follow it, but it is not policy. With focused visual tools and preprocessor support, Brackets is a modern text editor that makes it easy to design in the browser. By continuing to browse the site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Brackets Code Editor Vs Sublime Text Editor. io, SublimeText, and Atom. You’ll enjoy writing code in Brackets. This is a program that comes from UNIX. Aug 01, 2019 · How to Install Brackets 1. The GNU nano text editor is a very small but useful text editor. Download Brackets for free. Atom Text Editor has large number of features, which makes it a useful editor. If you only need a text editor for small. Brackets is an open-source editor for web design and development built on top of web technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Once finished you can save, export or. The HTML Editor is therefore at an advanced level as compared to the simple text editors. You can use them to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. Jan 27, 2016 · Vi / VIM Vim is a highly configurable text editor built to enable efficient text editing. A word-processor is overkill for creating m-files, however, and it is usually more convenient to use a simple text editor, or a ``programmer's editor''. The project was created and is maintained by Adobe, and is released under an MIT License. 0, Adobe announced that the development of an open source software for web development was ready and was not an experimental project anymore. The user is typing a function, and the autocompletion shows the possible matches. Download brackets. It is a good idea to follow it, but it is not policy. Mar 23, 2017 · Brackets is a solid editor and has everything you need for working with files and directories, and creating new files. Brackets might be too new for some folks, but others are taking it to new levels with development and extensions that are sure to make it one of the blistering open source text editors in 2013 and. New topics in Leanring the vi Editor include coverage of four vi clones, vim , elvis , nvi and vile , and their extensions, such as multiwindow editing, extended regular. How to show the console in Brackets text editor ? @ AM, I got what you mean I also use bracket and wondering if it could do like TH workspace. Our Quality Assurance process for our editing and proofreading services is rigorous, and all of our processes are independently verified according to global standards. An extension for Brackets to show all SASS hints in the code editor (including local/global variables, functions, mixins, keywords, parameters). A text editor is a program that saves your files without formatting. Pixel-perfect preview. JSON or JavaScript Object Notation is a language-independent open data format that uses human-readable text to express data objects consisting of attribute-value pairs. How Can I Change The Default Color for Brackets? By default, the brackets are treated as regular text, which makes it difficult to see whether you are editing through SpecsIntact (on-screen) or on a hard copy that was printed in black and white or color. Brackets symbol is a copy and paste text symbol that can be used in any desktop, web, or mobile applications. Free ColdFusion Editors. The brackets text editor has reached the 1. Just click on the symbol to get more information such as brackets symbol unicode, download brackets emoji as a png image at different sizes, or copy brackets symbol to clipboard. This is where you can put context-specific code and. Typora is a cross-platform minimal markdown editor, providing seamless experience for both markdown readers and writers. SourceLair. Local Environment Setup. I am proofreading an artist monograph that includes substantial text. cross-platform. Function Insight Tooltips. 14 Text Editor in Ubuntu. Brackets is an open-source code editor that has been specifically designed for working in HTML, CSS and JavaScript, and subsequently has been built in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Much of the text comes from interviews with people who knew the artist. 5 and since then have\_proved to be one of the most useful features. Arbitrary number of branches can follow it after an intervening white space. This will allow for non-native file types to be recognized and opened by the built-in text editor when the file is ‘double-clicked’ on in the Project View. We built Brackets to help web designers and front-end developers to be more productive by providing features like Live Preview, Quick Edit, Quick View, Quic. About the HTML Editor on this Page. Aug 11, 2008 · Looking for a lightweight Latex editor August 11, 2008 5:19 PM Subscribe. At its core, a text editor does what it says on the tin: it allows you to edit text. Once you have learned vi, you will find that it is a fast and powerful editor. Notepad++ is an extremely popular text editor. Bracketsは、Adobe Systemsが開発するオープンソースのソースコードエディタ である。 リリースサイクルは、4か月ごとの定期リリースとなっている。 Adobe Dreamweaver CC 2017以降ではコードエディター部分に、Bracketsをベースにしたものを採用している。. We built Brackets to help web designers and front-end developers to be more productive by providing features like Live Preview, Quick Edit, Quick View, Quic. For instance, if you are using square brackets and want to replace any instance of a chord with another chord, you would type [Am/C] in the search field and [Am7] in the replace field and then tap on the Perform Search and Replace button to make the change. As you change the text from the WYSIWYG-HTML editor, the changes are visible within the free HTML editor. PSPad is a freeware programmer's editor for Microsoft Windows operating systems, useful for people who: work with various programming environments; like highlighted syntax in their source code; need a small tool with simple controls and the capabilities of a mighty code editor; are looking for a tool that handles plain text. The comprehensive text editor for programmers, created by GitHub. 14, the latest release of Brackets Text Editor for Linux Ubuntu, brings PHP Tooling, LSP Support and many more improvements and fixes. Apr 05, 2018 · The reason being, it offers much-needed syntax highlighting, auto-completion, etc. You can edit the file /etc/nanorc or the file ~/. That’s why in this article, we’ll go over some of the best text editors for developers on Linux. download brackets windows, brackets windows, brackets windows download free. Another popular editor is Notepad++, a vastly improved version of Notepad. Apr 25, 2016 · Best Free Programming Editor; Best Free Text Editor / Notepad Replacement; Free Online Tool To Remove Line Breaks, Convert to HTML and More Editor. Best Collaborative Text Editors. file_download. It is an excellent free tool for web designers and front-end developers. Although it’s essentially a text editor and therefore suitable for coding pretty much. Provides in-line editing of source. Brackets is an open source code editor for web designers and front-end developers. NET Notepad++ jEdit Sublime Text 2 – The Swiss Army Knife Brackets Aptana Studio 3 If you want to develop a website, you’ll need an HTML editor. A community guided open source web editor from Adobe, with focused visual tools and preprocessor support, Brackets is a modern text editor that makes it easy to design in the browser, crafted from the ground up for web designers and front-end developers. You'll enjoy writing code in Brackets. Sublime Text is a super fast and feature packed text and development editor. The editor can display auto-complete information for functions, tables and columns. Open an existing or new document in Word and place the cursor where you want to put the text with overlining. Here we list you Best text editor software windows/ Mac 2020 that will offer you great capabilities. KDE is an open community of friendly people who want to create a world in which everyone has control over their digital life and enjoys freedom and privacy. It is specialized for editing code, and comes with a number of language modes and addons that implement more advanced editing functionality. Download brackets text editor for free. That’s why in this article, we’ll go over some of the best text editors for developers on Linux. 4 or later "text editor + file transfer + svn + css + terminal + books + more = whoah. Brackets - Desktop Text editor Usage Tutorial 8 comments. I use Vim, but each editor has its adherents. I am going to talk about the new age, cutting edge, great looking, sleek and yet powerful, feature-rich best open source code editors for Linux that would enhance your programming experience. The main advantages of Vim 6 compared to Vim 5 can be found on this page. If you aren't familiar with Brackets you might want to watch that first to see if the editor looks interesting to you. Development Tools downloads - Brackets by Brackets team and many more programs are available for instant and free download. Get a free download for Utilities software in the specialized download selection. Mozilla recommends Brackets as a text editor for beginners (Link). It is included as "vi" with most UNIX systems and with Apple OS X. This version of the document covers Word 2007 for Windows and Word 2008 and 2011 for Macintosh. From development groups to publishers, text and code editors’ are tangled with virtually everyone’s workflows. Sublime Text Editor Free Download Overview: The Sublime Text editor has a user-friendly interface which is very useful for word processing. Let me save you some googling if you are new to any of these: Atom; Light Table; brackets. With new features and extensions released every 3-4 weeks, it's like getting presents all year long. How to Install Brackets 1. The best way to understand it is to see it in action. I'm looking for a lightweight text editor that can easily be configured to work with LaTeX. With the release of Brackets 1. Jul 20, 2011 · This happens when you have Word as the email editor and configured it to show Field Codes. Sublime Text, Visual Studio Code, Brackets, and Atom rise to the top, but several others are also worth considering In this article, I discuss 10 text editors with good support for developing. Visual Studio Code is a code editor redefined and optimized for building and debugging modern web and cloud applications. We blend visual tools into the editor so you get the right amount of help when you want it. You can delete all of this text, or play around links use single square brackets. The most important reason people chose Brackets is:. With features like multi-caret editing, column/block editing and multi-select, it's a simple text editor when you want it to be, and a multi-cursor power editor when you need it to be. Sep 27, 2014 · Download Extreme Editor. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. This app simplifies the process of coding, allowing coders to share their work through various platforms. 0 Development Test 2". Atom too is a free and open source text editing tool and is maintained through one of the well-known repository – GitHub. Also, all Unicode characters with Unicode Bidi_Paired_Bracket_Type property values of Open and Close are included. Windows/OS X/Linux: Adobe just launched Brackets 1. It's a great alternative to IDE but not as heavy as it. Provides in-line editing of source. Typora is a cross-platform minimal markdown editor, providing seamless experience for both markdown readers and writers. Text editors are also useful for removing formatting, font styles and hyperlinks from text. Brackets is a text editor made by the good people over at Adobe - yes, that "Adobe," the tech industry giant responsible for Photoshop, Illustrator and InDesign, among many other popular software applications designed to help creative people perform their jobs well. Development Tools downloads - Brackets by Brackets team and many more programs are available for instant and free download. Brackets is an open source code editor for web designers and front-end developers. Learn how to use Brackets and see all the functionality in action. develops and markets 3D CAD design software, analysis software, and product data management software. We blend visual tools into the editor so you get the right amount of help when you want it without getting in the way of your creative process. ) and full Integrated Development Environments (VisualStudio, Eclipse. Description: Brackets is an open-source editor for web design and development built on top of web technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Brackets is new desing for text editor with an open-source editor You can find the github repository : And Offical… by moorkedi Brackets - Desktop Text editor Usage Tutorial — Steemit Sign in. The YoLinux portal covers topics from desktop to servers and from developers to users. For most types of computers there are several text editors (often as freeware or shareware). org Writer include formatting information when they save a file -- that is how the program knows to bold certain text and italicize others. You'll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features and amazing performance. By merely starting up Apache, typing in my localhost URL and clicking refresh whenever I make changes, Brackets still works like a charm. It is included as "vi" with most UNIX systems and with Apple OS X. May 23, 2015 · So I went back to Sublime text editor, and the “buy sublime now” message appeared and I freaked out. Most important is its. It comes with inline editor (no need to jumping around tabs), real-time live preview of your CSS/HTML codes and pre-processor support. Brackets Themes: A collection of Brackets editor themes. Otherwise, return NO. Brackets Software Features Inline Editors. Also, all Unicode characters with Unicode Bidi_Paired_Bracket_Type property values of Open and Close are included. EditPad Lite has all the essential features to make text editing a breeze: Large file and long line support. The Format of HOWTOs 3. Brackets is an open-source editor for web design and development built on top of web technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. The brackets text editor has reached the 1. , \textbf {bold text} gives bold text. This free text editor comes with Live Preview, Inline Editing, focused visual tools Preprocessor support, and other. The proper version number for what you currently have posted should be "Brackets Portable 1. What's really surprising, though, is that Brackets is itself largely written in JavaScript, CSS and HTML. VS Code has become the most used IDE/Editor in a very short time, because of its combination of features, expansion options, and support. Some are easy-to-use but have limited functionality; others require training to use and take a long time to master, but offer incredible functionality. This Jquery library plugin is a simple BBCode editor, which can be easily placed on any website. They indicate that some kind of alteration has been made in the original text. This tool is using bootstrap version 3. SourceLair. Nowadays the Sublime Text Editor is the best one in the market. (It's aimed at STATA users, but all the. Bootstrap 4 Tutorial One Page Website Build Free Course Posted by System22. Use the find and replace tool for your custom commands. On Linux, you have a choice of text editors. Brackets can include parentheses, curly brackets, and braces - (), {}, []. Brackets might be too new for some folks, but others are taking it to new levels with development and extensions that are sure to make it one of the blistering open source text editors in 2013 and. CodeLobster - Free portable PHP IDE with support Drupal, Smarty, Twig, WordPress, Joomla, JQuery, CodeIgniter, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, AngularJS, CakePHP, Facebook. In particular, I want to be able to find and replace across multiple lines in multiple files. Free Programmer's Editors, Integrated Development Environment (IDE), ASCII Text Editors. Extensions for Brackets. Racketfest, a new Racket event, was held in Berlin, 17 August 2019. If you would like to give something back to the freeware community by taking it over, check out this page for more details. You can resize, rotate or move text. El editor de texto dentro de Brackets se encuentra basado en CodeMirror. Editor font and colors — There are. The gibberish text generator populates the editor or the allocated area on the page with some basic Lorem Ipsum paragraphs. Open source and free to download text editor. It's much easier to edit those values in a proper text-editor than trying to do it in a tiny little window that shows but a few letters at a time. If this section is missing, add the following to the end of the file. Very often, this includes syntax highlighting for the HTML/CSS elements (and perhaps also for PHP, Perl, JavaScript, ASP, Java elements as well). As a result, new users looking for a good text editor might be overwhelmed with all the different choices. Sublime Text is a sophisticated text editor for code, markup and prose. Dec 21, 2018 · Brackets is an easy text editor which you can start easily with web designing and development, as you know there are many html editors if you search you will find a lot but there is a few best html editor that you can understand its features and how to code. How to Remove Brackets Text Editor from Linux: If you wish to uninstall Brackets from your Linux Operating system, then there are two ways if you are using Linux Ubuntu unity. It's free and has Inline Editing, Live Preview, and Preprocessor Support features, which all deliver unique. I strongly recommend using a text editor which color-codes the formula for you, especially when you are building nested formulas (the Text. The plugins for these editors are developed by third-party developers. After the paste nothing actually appears and the editor is 'frozen' I cannot move cursor, type or click anywhere inside editor. With focused visual tools and preprocessor support, Brackets is a modern text editor that makes it easy to design in the browser. Top 10 Best Text Editor for Windows 10 1. Apr 04, 2019 · Brackets is a popular text editor that was launched by Adobe back in 2014. 12 | 2 minutes read. Sep 30, 2018. Better DS3. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. Aug 19, 2019 · Basic intro tutorial on how to use my favorite software development tool, the Notepad++ text and code editor. With the release of Brackets 1. It lets users preview documents directly in the text editor as opposed to a side pane. Create new branches, stage and commit, push and pull, resolve merge conflicts, view pull requests and more—all from within your editor. Brackets is a free, modern open-source text editor made especially for Web Development. Adjust the content in any of the editors and the changes will apply to the other one automatically. Brackets is a lightweight, yet powerful, modern text editor. First read CONTRIBUTING. SourceLair. PDF Editor for Docs:Edit, Fill, Sign, Print. @ TB, yes you r right, been trying to get in file course but it doesn't work. Jun 04, 2019 · This article will help you to install Atom Text Editor on Ubuntu, Debian, and LinuxMint systems. Hi folks, Emacs is not a very simple editor from the command point of view, but any text editor should have a search feature. Brackets also has a great support for extension. Atom Text Editor has joined the list of best text editors for Mac and has already left its mark in being quite capable and powerful tool. May 23, 2015 · So I went back to Sublime text editor, and the “buy sublime now” message appeared and I freaked out. When creating a new HTML document, there's always that sluggish start before you should begin; Getting the boilerplate/skeleton of the HTML structure out of the way. Because Brackets is open source, and built with HTML, CSS and JavaScript, you can help build the best code editor for the web. Apr 01, 2013 · The latest version of AvalonEdit can be found as part of the SharpDevelop project. They contain some extra explanation of the HTML and CSS codes in the example. It's not as light-weight as Notepad++ or Sublime Text. There are hundreds of extensions are available for every text editor. With centered visual tools and preprocessor bolster, Brackets is a cutting edge content tool that makes it simple to outline in the program. 04, Ubuntu 16. You first need to specify a line with the name of the syntax and the files that you want to be highlighted by your syntax. For details on AvalonEdit, please see www. 0 Development Test 2". Try Creative Cloud Extract (preview) for Brackets for an easy way to get clean, minimal CSS straight from a PSD with no generated code. It starts quite fast (0. Brackets is an open source modern code editor, written mostly in JavaScript, HTML and CSS. It's an Adobe tool, so it looks great and integrated perfectly with other Adobe products. Some of these shortcuts are also used by menu items.